Hrvatsko nuklearno društvo

Hrvatsko nuklearno društvo

I have never regarded nuclear radiation or nuclear power as anything other than a normal and inevitable part of the environment. Our prokaryotic forebears evolved on a planet-sized lump of fallout from a star-sized nuclear explosion, a supernova that synthesised the elements that go to make our planet and ourselves. <James Lovelock>


6. međunarodna konferencija HND-a "Nuclear Option in Countries with Small or Medium Electricity Grids" održana je u Dubrovniku, od 21. - 25. svibnja 2006.

Prezentirani radovi na konferenciji mogu se pogledati na webu konferencije: Radovi 6. konferencije.

Više pročitajte u nastavku vijesti!

2006 HND konferencija

ss Scope of the conference

Since 1996, Croatian Nuclear Society biennially organizes the international conference ”Nuclear Option in Countries with Small and Medium Electricity Grids”. Encouraged by the successes of the previous conferences, the intention of the Dubrovnik 2006 Conference is to promote regional and international cooperation in the advanced technology development and usage of nuclear energy. To that aim the Conference will consider nuclear option from the point of view of country energy needs, energy market deregulation, new reactor technologies, environmental advantages, and organizational, educational and social requirements. It will also focus on the matters related to the operation and safety of the operating nuclear power plants. The exchange of experience and co-operation in the fields of the safety culture, regulatory practice and radioactive waste management is foreseen to provide an additional value to the outcome of the conference.

ss Programme

The Conference will start with invited lectures. The accepted papers will be presented in one of 11 oral sessions or in the poster session. Some of the papers will serve as an introductory paper to the round tables. At the end of each session the chairman will give a short review of that session papers which will be presented in the poster session.
It is foreseen that the conference papers will cover the following session:
  • Energy Planning and Nuclear Option
  • Power Reactors and Technologies
  • Nuclear Energy and the Environment
  • Operation and Maintenance Experience
  • Safety Culture
  • Nuclear Safety Analyses
  • Nuclear Fuel Cycle
  • Radioactive Waste Management and Decommissioning
  • Public Relations
  • Regulatory Practice
  • Liability and Insurance for Nuclear Damage
It is foreseen that the following round table discussions will be organised during the Conference:
  • Nuclear Energy Perspectives in Europe
  • Planning the Decommissioning of NPPs
  • Harmonization of Nuclear Liability Regimes in Europe, USA and Far East

ss Popis autora i radova

ss Conference views, conclusions and recommendations


The Conference comprised 11 topical sessions and a poster session plus three round tables intended to give more general discussion based on the presentations in 11 topical sessions. Conference conclusions and recommendations were drafted by session chairmen on the basis of discussions in their respective sessions and round tables and proposed to the Conference participants at its Closing session. Program Committee members finally revised, accepted, and amended conclusions and recommendations.

Session 1 - Energy Planning and Nuclear Option

Session 1 included 5 presentations; one originally planned presentation from Tunisia on nuclear desalination project for the Shkira site was not delivered because the presenter was unable to attend. A presentation from Ukraine focussed on the national strategy of nuclear option development and highlighted three possible scenarios of nuclear capacity addition, with 8 to 13 new power units to be added by 2030. It was emphasized that the Ukraine would attempt to diversify fuel supply without embarking on an indigenous enrichment option. A presentation from Lithuania provided information on a principle decision of the three Baltic States to build collectively a new NPP. This decision of Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia was adopted in March 2006; the feasibility study is to be started this year with the construction start-up scheduled for 2008 and the commissioning targeted in 2015. The EPR was mentioned as one of possible NPP choices. A presentation from Syria outlined intermediate results of the national energy and nuclear power planning study for the period up to 2030 being carried out in cooperation with the IAEA. Analyses of the least-cost expansion of the generation system show that natural gas and combined cycle power plants would play a dominant role in the Syrian future electricity generation with nuclear power becoming a competitive option after 2022. A presenter from Croatia analyzed possible business impacts of NPP Krsko lifetime extension for the Croatian utility. The major findings are that an extension of the plant lifetime for another 10 or 20 years would postpone the investment to a replacement plant of any kind and would also postpone the decommissioning and waste management. Lifetime extension could also help reduce business risk through diversification of energy sources and would increase the security of supply to the Croatian utility customers. Another presenter from Croatia provided his vision of long-term requirements to nuclear energy. Nuclear proliferation threat was identified as the most serious obstacle on the way of global expansion of nuclear energy, and the renewed attempts to internationalize sensitive fuel cycle installations were mentioned as best solution. Balanced NPT approach was emphasized as essential. A general trend in energy planning studies as highlighted by this session is towards considering the options for regional cooperation.
V. Kuznetsov

Section 2 – Power Reactors and Technologies

A number of inovative reactors will be ready for near term deployment (after 2010).
Two of such reactors (AP1000 and SWR1000) were described. Also a number of small reactors were reviewed, with special attention to reactors with off site refueling.
Concept of IRIS reactor has also been presented. Design of this reactor is a product of international effort.
An interesting possibility for plant life time extension by reducing its power a nd combining with gas fired plant was also described.
Acceptance of a reactor concept met fully proven in operation could present an extensive risk for the investor. Such risk could be reduced by sharing it with the supplier by means of special arrangment.

Session 3 – Nuclear Energy and Environment

2 papers.
The countries that have ratified Kyoto protocol, have to reduce the GHG emission. Beside renewable energy sources, nuclear power plants have also positive influence on the CO2 emission reduction costs. This option was analyzed by MARKAL code.
The Canberra Accuscan in vivo whole body counting system has been upgraded, showing a significant increase of the measured efficiency of both detectors for gamma energy less than 300 keV. The upgraded system can be reliably used for assessing the internal contamination with gamma emitting radionuclides.
N. Debrecin, M. Baće

Session 4. - Operation & Maintenance

17 papers from 8 countries were submitted addressing O&M topics. 10 were selected for oral presentation.
The positive winds into the sails of commercial nuclear power are completely dependant on the safe, reliable, publicly accepted and economical operati on of the existing plants worldwide.
In support of the above, during 2 sessions, a variety of processes, methods, practices applied at various types of reactor technologies were presented. Presented topics were ranging from: operating experience, plant life time extension, modernization and uprates, proactive approach to equipment reliability and maintenance activities, plant configuration and personnel knowledge management, up to very special, state of the art, inspection and diagnostic methods.
The submitted articles confirmed the awareness at the operating nuclear power plants and within the supporting institutions and industry, of their serious role and responsibility in pursuing the operating excellence and therefore maintaining the option of commercial nuclear power viable.
P. Širola, D. Čorak, Z.Heruc

Session 5. - Safety culture

The strengthening of safety culture in an organization has become an increasingly important issue for nuclear industry. A high level of safety performance is essential for business success in intensely competitive global environment.
Due it's importance safety culture topics were first time discussed in stand alone session. 9 papers from 6 countries were submitted and 6 were selected for oral presentation.
The tools and methods for further safety culture improvement were discussed during the session such as self assessment, knowledge management program, education program, quality system program and program for event prevention.
D. Kavšek

Session 6. – Nuclear Safety Analyses

First part

8 papers were foreseen for sections and 7 were presented. 3 presentations are related to uncertainty and code qualification, 2 are related to coupled thermal – hydraulics neutronics calculation, one to best estimate plant calculation and one to development of plant specific simulator. Generally speaking, level of presentation was good, but 15 minutes assumed for presentations were not enough. The papers address current and important topics, but there were no new things presented.

Second part

In the second part of Nuclear safety analysis Section 6 from 5 planned papers two were not presented, and one new paper was presented. One presentation was describing overall approach to the upgrade of common cause failures modelling regarding both data changes and modelling advances. Two papers were related to sever accident modelling: molten corium coolability and hydrogen behaviour in the containment. Final paper was dealing with activities related to plant life maintenance optimisation.
Presented papers were illustrations of approaches to address some of current important issues for the safe nuclear power plant operation.

Session 7 – Nuclear Fuel Cycle

In the nuclear fuel cycle session papers on advanced pellets, replaced fuel rods, and computer codes for neutronic analyses of PWR were presented. Economics of VVER fuel cycles has been also presented.
Reuse of fuel assemblies and implementation of fuel assemblies with burnable absorbers and cluster control rods in RBMK reactor has been analysed.

Session 8 - Radioactive Waste Management and Decomisioning

Round Table: Planning the Decommissing of NPP's

Several issues relevant for planning the decommissioon of NPP's have been addressed by 5 panellists. In discussion the importance of early planning of the decommissions has been stressed as well as the need that the decommission has to smoothly follow the shut-down of NPP.
Knowledge preservation was identified as very important for planning and performing the decommissing. Regarding the decommission of NPP Krško in spite of different views presented during round table, the need to performe next iteration of decommissioning plan has been recommended.

Session 10 – Regulatory Practice

During the 10th session three reports were presented.
Papers presented during this session cover the overview of organizational and legal framework for establishment of Croatian nuclear safety regulatory body as well as authorities and responsibilities of this administrative organization; the second paper discuss about non-proliferation and export control legal framework and practices in Republic of Croatia, and the last paper covers the regulatory aspects of an aging management program.
General remarks could be given that on this conference only three papers covers various regulatory aspects and recommendation is that regulator work should be presented in much broad aspects especially in light of growing risk of nuclear proliferation, as well as activities connected to current and possible future licensing processes of nuclear facilities as result in growing demand of energy in any kind.

Session 11. - Liability and insurance for nuclear damage

Round Table 3. - Harmonisation of nuclear liability regimes in Europe

During the Session 11. of this Conference, through 8 general and 2 national reports, we have learned about the current status and major provisions concerning the Paris and Vienna Convention recent revisions and obtained a discussion relating to the liability and insurance for nuclear damage as well as about the different approaches in some countries in adopting their legislation to these conventions. We have also learned about the adoption of the Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage, and the current status of its signature and/or ratification. Through a separate report dealing with the Nuclear Liability and Insurance Protection for Nuclear Transport Accidents Involving Non-Contracting EU States, we have discovered some additional problems which deserve our attention in resolving them. The reports relating to the Role of Nuclear Insurance Pools and the next covering the Revised Paris and Vienna Nuclear Liability Conventions, has given a comprehensive information about the role of Nuclear Insurance Pools in the past and present and about the Challenges for Nuclear Risk Insurers based on these revised conventions, discovering the gaps between the operators liability and the insurance protection given to the operators by Nuclear Insurers. A special report was dealing with Transport Nuclear Liability Insurance elaborating the solutions applied and some problems in this area. Beside these more general matters we learned about the problems of terrorism risk coverage and insurability of these risks examining the solutions applied in some countries on how to cover them through the insurance pools and/or by governments (states) support and/or by other schemes in the current practice.

The report on Claims Handling Co-operation between Nuclear Insurance Pools in a Case of Transboundary Damage has stressed the important role of Nuclear Insurance Pools assisting each other in case of a transboundary damage, helping the victims of a nuclear accident in collecting their claims requests and address them to Liability Insurer in orders to receive a compensation for nuclear damage suffered. The importance of Price-Anderson Act as a Linchpin in the Development of Commercial Nuclear Power in the USA, has been elaborated by a separate report, as well.

A very particular solution in Spain and in France relating to Nuclear Legislation and Insurance of Radioactive sources has been presented during this Session. Finally, we have learned about the Romanian Nuclear Liability Legislation recent development.

It is obvious that the ongoing process of adopting the Nuclear Liability legislation within the Paris/Brussels Convention and Vienna Convention countries will go on for the next few years. The ratification of, or the accession to the revised conventions is the first step before any changes in the national legislations within these countries could be foreseen. Still, we were informed about the increased liability limits of the operators in some European countries, even before the complex revision of the nuclear liability legislation, based on the a.m. conventions, has been adopted. A major development in this respect is expected during 2006/7 years.

As concern the Vienna Convention countries the adoption of the Protocol to Amend the Vienna Convention of 1997, based on the accession and/or ratification of this Protocol, gives some doubt that its implementation in the national legislation would soon be realised on the large scale. Even more, this concern relates to the ratification/accession to the Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage of September 1997, which was adopted at the Diplomatic Conference within IAEA in Vienna, together with the a.m. Protocol.

We should also follow closely the trends concerning some Vienna Convention Countries moving toward the Paris/Brussels Convention system (Slovenia for e.g.). This process should be studied carefully, specially in conjunction with the recent political development within Europe and the enlargement of EU, firstly by 10 (ten) new members states in 2004 and two potential members (Bulgaria and Romania) as from 2007 year, but also following the desire by other CEE countries to join the EU (Croatia for e.g.) in the years to come and the need to harmonise (among others) the nuclear liability regimes within EU.

This session and the Round Table 3. proved again its value for the lawyers, insurers, insureds and governmental and non-governmental bodies representatives and should be preserved for future Conferences.

In Dubrovnik, 25th May, 2006., Prepared by: Bruno Sladonja

ss Programme committee

N. Čavlina, Chairman, Croatia
M. Baće, Croatia
M. Čerškov-Klika, Croatia
D. Čorak, Croatia
F. D’Auria, Italy
D. Dodig, Croatia
Y.G. Dragunov, Russia
D. Feretić, Croatia
D. Grgić, Croatia
H. Glaeser, Germany
Z. Heruc, Slovenia
K. Ilieva, Bulgaria
D. Kavšek, Slovenia
V. Knapp, Croatia
N. Yu. Kuznetsov, Russia
V. Kuznetsov, IAEA
S. Lulić, Croatia
N. Malbaša, Croatia
G. Marović, Croatia
B. Mavko, Slovenia
V. Mikuličić, Croatia
J. Mišák, Czech Republic
I. Mravak, Croatia
A. Omoto, IAEA
H. Perharić, Slovenia
B. Petrović, USA
R. Petrech, Slovakia
D. Pevec, Croatia
A. Piirto, Finland
M. Prah, Croatia
S. M. S. Reitsma, Switzerland
J. Ronaky, Hungary
S. Rožman, Slovenia
E. Sartori, OECD
B. Sladonja, Croatia
A. Stritar, Slovenia
D. Subašić, Croatia
P. Širola, Slovenia
D. Škanata, Croatia
Ž. Tomšić, Croatia
I. Valčić, Croatia
G. Van Goetham, EU
M. Veselič, Slovenia
K. Vrankić, Croatia
M. Zeljko, Croatia

ss Organising committee

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